Cadbury Gorilla

Cadbury Is a British chocolate company founded almost 200 years ago by John Cadbury. Cadbury originally sold items such as cocoa and drinking chocolate that, using a mortar and pestle, he prepared himself in the grocer’s shop he opened in 1824 in Birmingham, England (“The History of Chocolate”).

Cadbury began manufacturing chocolate in 1831 when he purchased a four story warehouse not far from his shop. By 1847, Cadbury had expanded his products lines to at least 16 types of drinking chocolate and 11 types of cocoa, and had moved into a larger factory closer to the center of Birmingham(“The History of Chocolate”) .

In 1861, with his health declining, John Cadbury relinquished control of the company, and his sons Richard and George took over (“The History of Chocolate”). In 1866, using a new processing technique, Cadbury introduced the United Kingdom’s first unadulterated cocoa, Cocoa Essence (“The History of Chocolate”).

Cadbury produced their first Easter egg in 1875. It was a plain dark chocolate and were filled with sugar-coated chocolate drops. Future versions of Cadbury’s Easter eggs would feature chocolate piping and marzipan flowers (“The History of Chocolate”).

Between 1879 and 1895, the Cadbury brothers began building Bournville, a village of over 150 houses intended for employees near their newest factory. Finishing out their 19th century accomplishments, the company introduced its first chocolate bar in 1897. The bars were made using leftover cocoa butter from Cadbury’s Cocoa Essence product (“The History of Chocolate”).

In 1906 and 1908, Cadbury launched two new products named after their Bournville factory, Bournville Cocoa and Bournville Chocolate, respectively. Bournville Cocoa was the company’s first alkalized cocoa product. Using a carbonate of potash, the cocoa was made to taste less bitter; this was a big change for a company that traditionally emphasized how pure its products were. Bournville Chocolate was introduced as a plain chocolate bar; however, there would eventually be many different varieties of the bar produced (“The History of Chocolate”).

The 1910s brought several changes for the company. In 1915 Cadbury introduced Milk Tray, an assortment of chocolates that, unlike the expensive chocolates the company had offered since the 1860s, was inexpensive enough that it could be eaten everyday, instead of just for special occasions. Cadbury merged with Bristol-based company J.S. Fry & Sons in 1919, allowing the company to expand its operations and produce chocolate on a larger scale (“The History of Chocolate”).

Based on the signature of William Cadbury, the company’s script logo was first used in 1921; prior to that the company had been using it’s original logo, an image of a cocoa tree intertwined with the company’s name. The original logo was designed by French artist Georges Auriol, and was used from 1911 until after the Second World War (“The History of Chocolate”).

During the war, Cadbury scaled back much of its production due to rationing. Due to restrictions on placed on what raw materials manufacturers could use, it was at this time Cadbury introduced Ration Chocolate, bars made with dried skimmed milk powder since manufacturers were unable to use fresh milk due to war rationing (“The History of Chocolate”).

Cadbury continued to introduce new products throughout the 40s, 50s, and 60s.     In 1969, Cadbury merged with Schweppes after Adrian Cadbury, the new Cadbury chairman, was approached by Lord Watkinson from Schweppes (“The History of Chocolate”).

The 70s saw a large increase in sales for the company, especially their Dairy Milk, Flake, Fruit and Nut, and Whole Nut products. Most of this increase was attributed to successful television advertising. Cadbury introduced three more products during the 70s, including the Cadbury Creme Egg in 1971 (“The History of Chocolate”).

The 80s and 90s brought more products from Cadbury and, as with products introduced in prior decades, not all of them stayed around very long. Nineteen-ninety also saw the opening of Cadbury World an attraction to replace the frequently disruptive factory tours that had been taking place in Cadbury’s working factory (“The History of Chocolate”).

In 2003, Cadbury bought Adams, the number two gum manufacturer in the world, becoming the leading confectionery company in the world. Cadbury launched their Gorilla commercial, which will be discussed later in this paper. The following year brought the demerging of Cadbury and Schweppes allowing each company to focus on its own area of expertise(“The History of Chocolate”).

Also in 2008, Cadbury launched their Cadbury Cocoa Partnership, a program that, over the course of a decade, put £45 million into cocoa farms in Indonesia, Ghana, India, and the Caribbean (“The History of Chocolate”). “The History of Chocolate” page on Cadbury’s website provides a list of ways the partnership will help cocoa farms and farming villages such as “help farmers increase their yields and produce top quality beans; Help start new rural businesses; Improve life in cocoa communities by supporting education, the environment and building wells for clean and safe water; Develop a pioneering way for cocoa farmers to work together with governments, NGOs, local organisations and international agencies.” Between cocoa farmers and their communities, the partnership is expected to help around a million people (“The History of Chocolate”).

More recently, Cadbury Dairy Milk went Fairtrade in 2009, which resulted in the tripling of sales for cocoa farmers in Ghana under Fairtrade terms. On 2 February 2010, Cadbury became a part of Mondelēz International. Lastly, the Chocolate Centre of Excellence, a research and development laboratory, opened in Bournville in 2012 (“The History of Chocolate”).

Fallon London was started in Minneapolis in 1981 and was originally simply called Fallon. Without a founding client, the five members of the agency pooled their money to place a one page newspaper ad announcing that they were an agency ‘for clients who would rather outsmart the competition than outspend them’ (“We Are Fallon”). Fallon’s London offices, conveniently named Fallon London, opened in 1998 and works with brands such as Cadbury, Maynards, and the Alzheimer’s Society (“We Are Fallon”).

One of the main goals of the Cadbury Gorilla campaign was to boost sales after, in 2006, some of their chocolate products were found to contain salmonella. The campaign was part of Cadbury Schweppes’ goal to increase sales by six percent (The Times), and, largely due to an increase in funding for marketing campaigns such as this one, Cadbury exceeded that goal, reaching a seven percent sales increase worldwide in 2007 (Jones). Another purpose for this campaign was to help boost sales of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate bars. According to The Times, Cadbury was hoping the campaign would make young consumers more interested in their Dairy Milk bars, a product that young consumers were not often attracted to (The Times).

The 90 second commercial originally aired on August 31, 2007, and a copy of the commercial uploaded to YouTube received almost 500,000 views within the first week after its release (Sandison, “Cadbury’s Drumming Gorilla Spawns Facebook Group”). The video featured actor Garon Michael in a fairly realistic gorilla suit listening to Phil Collins’ “In the Air Tonight” and playing along on the drums. Cadbury released a sequel to this campaign in late 2008 which featured the gorilla playing drums along to Bonnie Tyler’s Total Eclipse of the Heart.

The commercial spawn many parodies and remixes, including a Wonderbra commercial that was pulled due to copyright infringement on Collins’ song (Sandison, “Wonderbra Gorilla Spoof Pulled for Copyright Infringement”).

For the most part, the campaign was a success; as stated previously, although Cadbury was only hoping for a six percent sales increase, this campaign helped the company reach a seven percent increase instead. The commercial also won several awards, including taking top place in the film category of Cannes International Advertising Festival, a black pencil at the D&AD awards, and winning ad of the year at the British Television Advertizing awards (Sweney).


Works Cited

Jones, David. “Cadbury Gets Sweeter Taste from Year of the Gorilla.” Reuters. Reuters,

19 Feb. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.

Sandison, Nikki. “Cadbury’s Drumming Gorilla Spawns Facebook Group.” Brand

Republic. Haymarket Media Group Ltd., 11 Sept. 2007. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.

Sandison, Nikki. “Wonderbra Gorilla Spoof Pulled for Copyright Infringement.” Brand

Republic. Haymarket Media Group Ltd., 6 Dec. 2007. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

Sweney, Mark. “Cannes: Gorilla Bags the Top Lion.” The Guardian. Guardian News and

Media Limited, 23 June 2008. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

“The History of Chocolate.” Https:// MondelezUK, 2012. Web. 25 Sept.

The Times. “Cadbury Schweppes – a Successfulmarketing Campaign.” Business Case

Studies. Business Case Studies, 9 Jan. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.

“We Are Fallon.” We Are Fallon. Fallon, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

Cadbury Gorilla

Ikea Facebook Showroom

Case Study 1 IKEA Facebook Showroom


IKEA has been around for decades, first originating in 1943 in Sweden. It was founded by 17-year-old Ingvar Kamprad, who in 2013 was listed as one of the world’s richest people. The name IKEA is an acronym for Ingvar Kamprad, Elmtaryd and Agunnaryd- the founder’s name, the farm where he grew up, his hometown, respectively. It is one of the largest furniture stores in the world with currently 373 stores worldwide in 47 different countries. In August 2009, IKEA opened a new store in Malmo, Sweden. The company enlisted Forsman & Bodenfors to create an ad campaign for the new store opening.

IKEA’s culture is one that revolves around contemporary design, low prices, and unusual promotions. IKEA is unique in that their advantage over the competition is that everything is offered under one roof. Going to IKEA is often considered an outing rather than shopping. The showrooms create a sense of inspiration and ingenuity of modern design, at prices that don’t make one shy away from looking in deep and trying out furniture. There is also a restaurant in the stores so that if hunger strikes there is no need to leave the store. After purchasing some furniture there is also a market on the way out of the store where you can buy food items from Sweden to take home for consumption. The layout of the building and the way it leads one along a circular path enhances the experience and leads one to see the store in its entirety.

Forsman & Bodenfors has done numerous campaigns for IKEA since 1996. Forsman & Bodenfors is, “The world’s most creative agency,” according to Adage and reported as the most awarded agency in the world 2014 by Gunn Report. The agency was founded in Sweden in 1986 as a small agency with a vision to create world class communication. They continue to be an independent company and are ranked as one of the best ad agencies in the world. They have received numerous awards for the agency and this campaign from: 100-Wattaren, Andy Awards, Art Directors Club, Art Directors Club Europe, Brit Insurance Designs of the Year, Cannes, Lions, Clio Awards, Cresta Awards, D&AD, Epica, Eurobest, Gourmand World Cookbook Awards, Guldagget, Lia, New York Festivals, One Show, Shark Awards, Svenska Designpriset, The Global Awards, and The Visual Effects Society.

Mediaedge:cia, or MEC, is the media agency Forsman & Bodenfors used to create and update the Facebook site. MEC is a leading global media agency who has been around for decades and has won numerous awards and titles. In addition to the creation of the site the agency was also responsible for communication within the site, acting as store manager Gordon Gustavsson.

Lennart Sjoberg was the photographer Forsman & Bodenfors used to photograph the showrooms. Much of what is written about him, including his website, is in Swedish so translation makes background on him difficult.

The following is a video that the agency created demonstrating how they created the Facebook Showroom ad campaign.

Goals of Campaign

Forsman & Bodenfors described the goal of the campaign to, “Create something engaging that would have the potential of spreading by itself beyond the borders of the Malmo region. But at the same time staying relevant and focusing on IKEA’s offer, their products. Without messing around.”

The agency had a limited media budget, so they came up with the idea of using an unconventional social media campaign using free social media, specifically Facebook’s tagging feature. While the cost of the social media and distribution was free, media costs included the agency’s labor, a photographer to take the showroom photos, and a media agency to create and update content over the two week campaign period.

The campaign was to be dynamic and engage consumers with an exclusive offer and then rewarded them for participating. By utilizing Facebook’s photo tagging function the goal was to generate curiosity from tagged photos of furniture that would fill news feed updates and share the campaign through word of mouse. The company is known for its modern architectural designs and simplicity, cost control, operational details, and continuous growth. It was important that these goals of the company aligned with the goals of the campaign. IKEA also created a social initiative in September 2005 to manage the company’s social involvements on a global level. The inspiration of this social media campaign helped reflect another goal of IKEA to create a sense of community and involvement, not only in the local area of the store, but on a global level.

How the campaign unfolded

The ad agency used Facebook photo tagging to share the campaign. They created a Facebook profile for the store manager, Gordon Gustavsson, , which is now deactivated. As the new store created showrooms on the floor they took completed pictures and shared them on Facebook. Over two weeks the agency uploaded twelve pictures of IKEA showrooms to the store manager’s photo album.

After the twelve photos were uploaded, they then told people that the first person to tag themselves on a furniture product would win it. The demand for more IKEA pictures spread to thousands of people through profile pages of people tagging themselves on the pictures, commenting on newsfeeds, and linking to the store manager’s Facebook page

Rather than creating a static ad about furniture that people would simply look at, Forsman & Bodenfors involved the fifth P to marketing- participation. The ad went from a seemingly simple campaign posting photos and following a traditional social media marketing plan to becoming a viral word of mouth campaign by giving back to the consumer. In essence, this approach caused customers to create other customers. The text on the following photos is in Swedish, but you can see that the manager’s persona was responding to people’s comments and interacting with them.


Photo 1. An image of IKEA’s instructions on being the first to tag a name on a furniture product in the photo to win that product. Accordingly, the diagram looks similar to IKEA’s instructions on putting together a furniture product.


Photo 2. A screenshot of the store manager’s wall feed. Notice the interaction between Gordon and consumers in the comments and his 1,176 friends.


Photo 3. A screenshot of one of the showrooms and consumers tagged on furniture products.


Photo 4. A screenshot of photos of the showrooms and instructions. Notice the communication between Gordon and consumers in the comments.

How would you measure its success? What indicators lead us to conclude that the campaign did its job?

The success of the campaign went viral overnight and continues to be a source of reference for using social media in marketing. There is currently a staggering 658,425 views on the Facebook Showroom YouTube video of how this campaign unfolded. The store manager’s, Gordon Gustovsson, Facebook page is deactivated now and there is no report of how many likes and friends there were when the page was terminated; however, there was a significant showing of success with 1,724 likes and 1,176 Facebook friends shown only days after the campaign launched. Additionally, the showroom photos reached a tag limit of 30 tags per photo within minutes of being posted, creating extensive reach to thousands of people through newsfeed, likes, tags, and comments.

External Indicators

The ad agency, Forsman & Bodenfors, won several awards for this campaign including a Titanium Lion at the Cannes International Advertising Festival in 2010. The campaign was also voted “Most Contagious 2009” by the International Contagious Magazine.

The campaign demonstrated the power of social networks and did so in a low cost and low tech way. Illuminia, a web developing and marketing company, contributes the success of IKEA’s showroom campaign to offering an exclusive reward promotion.

IKEA is among the biggest furniture retailers in the world with more than 10,000 products available. The domestic and global market for IKEA does not have many competitors that can match the company’s guidelines, selection, quantity, quality, and price. One key aspect to the success of IKEA is online marketing and selling. The effectiveness of this Facebook campaign can be seen in how much exposure was created online, including tweets about the competition and thousands of blogs who have posted showroom photos while writing about the campaign. Essentially, the Facebook showroom campaign spread to all major social media sites through a simple competition on just one social media site.

In 2009 IKEA opened 15 stores in 11 countries, including the store in Malmo, Sweden. Part of the success in this campaign was its ability to reach over boarders and increase store traffic and consumption worldwide in IKEA stores. The world economy was in a downturn during 2009, but IKEA’s sales rose 1.4% influenced from this Facebook Showroom campaign’s wide spread sales.

Internal Indicators

The mission statement of IKEA is large and global stating, “Our vision is to create a better everyday life for the many people.” The business idea, however, defines the IKEA brand and makes the mission statement attainable by, “Offering a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them.” The campaign for the Facebook showroom followed the core of IKEA’s corporate culture through saving money on advertising, using the masses to spread awareness, and rewarding customers with home furnishing products.

The target market for IKEA is aimed toward people of all ages, genders, geographic locations, but who all have one thing in common: Price preference. In past and future advertising, IKEA has used promotion globally attempting to reach many people in each local market. Other channels of reaching customers that IKEA uses are websites, publications, brochures, advertising, and PR. All of these channels, including the Facebook showroom, illustrate IKEA values both visually and in tone of voice.

The following reflect the IKEA set of values that this campaign achieved. Leadership by example; the campaign became an industry leader example in social media advertising through the simple use of one vehicle. Daring to be different; this campaign was a very simple, but unorthodox way to use social media in business at the time. Togetherness and enthusiasm; social community is essential to IKEA and is reflected by using social media as an online presence, this campaign created a sense of community behind the local store location. Cost-consciousness; this campaign was very cost effective using a free social media platform as a channel to reach thousands of people who would promote the campaign. Constant desire for renewal; IKEA adapted to reach its customers and came up with an innovative solution to cost and location limitations.

Now and Then- what did people say then and what do people say now about the campaign’s impact?

When the campaign first appeared critics gave favorable reviews for the success it received. However, the admiration wasn’t for the complexity of the design, but rather the cleverness of utilizing a simple feature in an existing social media vehicle. CNET called the campaign brilliant and said, “This idea is, as the best always are, simple and inspired. Which, some would say, also perfectly describes the clever, affordable, if sometimes maddening-to-put-together little things made by IKEA.” Viral Blog also reported that blogs were describing the campaign as “Brilliant, innovative, smart yet simple, genius, outside the box, awesome, excellent, unconventional”

Today, the IKEA Facebook showroom campaign is listed among one of the best examples of social media campaigns and has become a resource for many case studies throughout the year. The campaign is still receiving rave reviews for its ability to successfully promote a brand through social media on a limited budget. This campaign cannot be repeated, however. Soon after IKEA completed their store opening Facebook changed their terms and conditions to prevent this type of campaign happening again.


IKEA History

IKEA Malmo Facebook

Forsman & Bodenfors IKEA Campaigns Search: IKEA

Youtube video, Facebook Wall & Photos

Viral Blog




IKEA Sales


OK Go Case Study “Here it Goes Again” – Loveridge & Cross

OK Go is an American band that was formed in 1998. In the beginning of their career, OK Go was just like any other average band that had some attention but was lacking in successful fame. In 2005, OK Go created a music video for the song “A Million Ways” that was not intended for anything besides sharing it with friends. As more and more people began sharing the video, the band’s popularity grew.

OK Go created music videos on their own terms. With little to no budget, and the help of Damian’s sister (the lead singer), OK Go created the music video for “Here it Goes Again” for fun. They enjoy the creation of art, and their goal was to share a piece of creative art. Damian said in an op-ed for the New York Times, “We shot it at my sister’s house without telling EMI, our record company, and posted it on the fledgling YouTube without EMI’s permission. (Kulash). Ok Go recorded and posted their music video to YouTube without their record label knowing, because although the video does self-promote their band, monetizing off the video was not their first priority. This was not as much of a social media campaign, as it was a band that wanted to be unique with their music video, took a chance, and reaped in the rewards by using a new mode, (YouTube), to share their art.

When OK Go posted their music video for “Here it Goes again” on YouTube, it immediately received an incredibly good reception. YouTube was only a year old when the music video was posted, and the Internet community had seen nothing like it before. Gil Kaufman from MTV said in 2006, “In addition to leapfrogging into the YouTube all-time top 25 thanks to more than 4 million views since it was submitted on July 31, “Here It Goes Again” has won the group some pretty serious praise from Laurie Ann Gibson…” (Kaufman). Not only had the music video captivated the audience of people around the world, but OK Go also garnered attention from well-known people, like the famous choreographer Laurie Ann Gibson.

However, not everyone received the music video well. “When they showed the result to the head of digital marketing at Capitol Records, the response was: ‘If this gets out, you’re sunk’” (D,David). Although Ok Go’s music video was an incredible success, veterans of the business did not think this was a good move.  In 2010, an issue came up with OK Go and their record label EMI. EMI made it so no one could embed OK Go’s music videos – one could only view it if they visited YouTube. EMI’s rationale was because YouTube gave them a royalty for views of OK Go’s music videos only if viewed from YouTube’s website. Damian Kulash responded with,

But this isn’t how the Internet works. Viral content doesn’t spread just from primary sources like YouTube or Flickr. Blogs, Web sites and video aggregators serve as cultural curators, daily collecting the items that will interest their audiences the most. By ignoring the power of these tastemakers, our record company is cutting off its nose to spite its face.

OK Go realized the power of social media when it first began to get popular. The amount of money the band and label company could obtain through free promotion via social media far surpasses the royalties the label gets from YouTube.

OK Go posted their music video for “Here it Goes Again” in 2006. The music video contains the band members of OK Go doing a dance routine on a set of eight treadmills. It is not only entertaining to watch, but the skill that it takes to shoot the video holds its own admiration with viewers.  Paul Brown describes it perfectly when he says, “…the marvel of the video is in a relatively simple idea pulled off with entertaining aplomb and deftness. Put simply, it´s enormously watchable, great fun, and helped by a rather nifty song (yes, there´s a song too!)” (Brown). Twitter had just been established and was not yet the juggernaut that it is today. YouTube, while still only a year old, was the main catalyst to the success of the “Here it Goes Again” music video. From 2006 to 2010, the music video has been viewed over 52 million times before the video was taken down (Walker). By today’s standards, this does not seem like much, but before the Katy Perry’s and Taylor Swifts of YouTube, 52 million views is huge.  One reason for the videos success was the format of the music video. OK Go shot the music video in one shot with no cuts.  The video’s viral success led to more than just fifteen minutes of fame for OK Go. In 2006, “Here it Goes Again” won Most Creative from YouTube and in 2007 won the Grammy for Best Short Form Music Video (Khaw). Due to a disagreement with their record company EMI, the music video for “Here it Goes Again” was removed. It has since been reposted to YouTube in 2009. Below are some examples of what people are saying about the video approximately 10 years since its release.

youtube comment1 youtube comment2 youtube comment3

OK Go has obtained immense success stemming from the popularity of their music video. Including “Here it Goes Again,” 11 additional OK Go music videos have garnered 240 million views on YouTube.  The views alone are a huge achievement, and the attention also leads to more profit via tour ticket sales, merchandise, and album sales. While making money on the music side of business, OK Go has also found a way to monetize their music videos. Tim walker writes, “Now the band have begun to turn their viral formula into genuine profit, by procuring sponsorship for their video schemes from the likes of Land Rover, Samsung and now Chevrolet, which gave OK Go $500,000-plus for the promo” (Walker). This example shows how OK Go’s creativity with music videos has now reached such a trustworthy reputation that big business are willing capitalize on videos that OK Go gets free creative reign with. Damian Kalush mentions in his New York Times article “we see them as creative works and not as our record company’s marketing tool” (Kalush). It is important to the band to stay true to themselves, and produce music and videos that are artistic and entertaining.

Another example that creative freedom is more important than money is when Tim Nordwind of OK Go mentions, “Luckily we’ve been able to carve out a career for ourselves that is basically just about us taking what are the most fun and creative opportunities available to us” (McIntyre). Ten years since their first music video went viral, they have stayed true to their word, and that is considered a major success for them. As stated by Tim Walker, “Their songs may not be for the ages, but as a business model, OK Go are as groundbreaking as it gets” (Walker). Below are more recent music videos OK Go has produced. The success of the “Here it Goes Again” allowed them to have the funding necessary to create these music videos.

Today, if you asked most people if they knew any OK Go songs, they would probably not be able to answer the question. And while their music videos are still popular, their views are marginal compared to the ultra-popular artists. However, OK Go’s music video made history at the beginning of the social media era. It is not exactly known how musicians after “Here it Goes Again” were inspired, or how the music video industry changed to meet the new demands. OK Go took a risk, and used a new type of medium to distribute a low budget music video. What resulted from this action was one of the first music videos to go viral on YouTube.  OK Go’s career was accelerated, if not solely hinged on the success of their music video “Here it Goes Again.”

Works Cited

Brown, Paul. “OK Go: The Birth of the Youtube Band |.” Musicvideosdeconstructed. 29 May

  1. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

D, David. “OK Go Goes 3D – An Economic History of OK Go Videos – MTT Open – Music

Think Tank.” OK Go Goes 3D – An Economic History of OK Go Videos – MTT Open – Music Think Tank. 12 Oct. 2010. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

Kaufman, Gil. “YouTube Faves OK Go: The Band Least Likely To Become Famous For Their

Dancing.” News. 28 Aug. 2006. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

Kulash, Damian. “WhoseTube?” The New York Times. The New York Times, 19 Feb. 2010.

Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

Khaw, Cassadra. “OK Go’s Long History of Viral Music Videos.” The Verge. 30 June 2014.

Web. 1 Oct. 2015.

McIntyre, Hugh. “OK Go Talk Creative Music Videos and Life Without a Label.” The

Huffington Post., 9 July 2015. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

Walker, Tim. “OK Go: How Video Saved the Radio Stars.” The Independent. Independent

Digital News and Media, 14 Feb.

2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

OK Go Case Study “Here it Goes Again” – Loveridge & Cross

The Project Your Project Could Smell Like: A Study Of Old Spice

John Combs
Raymond West
DTC 338
Case Study #1

The Project Your Project Could Smell Like: A Study Of Old Spice

 The Old Spice “Smell like a Man” campaign was extremely successful at establishing brand awareness. WIth little explanation, most people can easily quote at least some portion of the commercial with ease, more than likely the portion containing something about a horse. Tracking data suggests the “Smell Like a Man” campaign successfully reach their target demographic and all sales number appear to have improved drastically. It will be difficult to repeat the accomplishments of this campaign. Historically this campaign can easy claim a cultural significance in the public zeitgeist. Looking at the history of Old Spice gives us an idea on why they chose to do such a strange and risky campaign.

The first Old Spice product ever made was called Early American Old Spice for women. Introduced in 1937. Old Spice for men didn’t come out until the following year 1938.

In these early days Old Spice was manufactured by the Shulton Company which was run by William Schultz. Schulz was a soap and toiletries maker who decided to make his own company in 1934, leading to him creating the first Old Spice scent. Schultz wanted a colonial theme for Old Spice. This is why colonial ships are used as the trademark image.

Old Spice gained global attention during World War II. Schultz was contributing to the war effort by allowing his factory to be used by the military. Old Spice aftershave became the standard among American soldiers, so wherever the soldiers traveled, the Old Spice scent went with them and became a loved scent worldwide.

Shultz passed away in 1950 leaving his son George Schultz in charge of the Shulton Company and Old Spice. 20 years later George Schultz sold the company to a manufacturer called American Cyanamid. During this time Old Spice began to offer new scents besides the classic fragrance for which they had been known.

Old Spice was bought by Procter & Gamble in 1990. Procter & Gamble were a giant consumer care product producer that also owned well known brands such as Bounty, Pantene, Tide, and Duracell. During this time Old Spice was seeing a decline in popularity. It was associated with an older man scent. Something fathers or grandfathers would wear. The youth audience was not interested in Old Spice.

Procter & Gamble knew they needed to appeal to the youth crowd in order to survive. They began donating small packages of Old Spice to 5th grade boys in health class. Making a first impression among the youth that deodorant, specifically Old Spice, was a product you would soon need for the rest of your life.

In 2010 P&G again wanted to expand the Old Spice line. They had a new liquid body wash for men for which they wanted to create a strong interest. They teamed up with Wieden and Kennedy.

Wieden and Kennedy was founded in 1982 by Dan Wieden and David Kennedy. Wieden and Kennedy pushed the envelope in the 1980’s when they helped advertise for Nike. Their advertisements were unlike any other with attention to advanced filming techniques, pop cultural references, and humour. The company soon became a top creative agency in the United States.

Partnering with Wieden and Kennedy lead to the creation of the “Smell like a man, man” campaign. This campaign would launch a new era for Old spice as the video quickly became viral and gave birth to the “Shirtless Old Spice Guy” doing video responses to tweets on the Old Spice twitter.

Old Spice, synonymous as the cologne used by high school age boys and my grandpa, found that the sales of their body wash were declining when compared to their market competition. Consumers were buying more body wash than bar soap and the Old Spice body wash introduced in 2003 was not selling as well as their competitors. Procter and Gamble approached advertising agency Wieden+Kennedy for the task of addressing their slipping sales.  

“A big question for us at the time was the name and whether the brand could be relevant to young men moving forward. An early and key decision was to turn this perceived weakness into a strength. With its 70-year brand heritage, Old Spice was ‘experienced’ and well positioned to be an expert on masculinity and being a man.”

Instead of attempting to rebrand Old Spice, or try to follow the trend of claiming the use of a particular brand’s body wash product will increase sex appeal, W+K decided to use the consumer’s existing awareness of the brand with a less formulaic commercial that satirically affirmed masculinity by using Old Spice’s long history. “The Man Your Man Could Smell Like” introduced a new line of body washes scents to the public through entertaining banter. Unlike most advertisers that vied for a primetime spot during Super Bowl XLIV, the commercial was uploaded to Youtube and Facebook days before the big game and actually aired following the game. This created a buzz before the game and caught online searches looking for Super Bowl information by utilizing social media this created an effective viral campaign around the big game.

The initial commercial launched on February 7th, 2010. It starred Isiah Mustafa standing in a bathroom wearing nothing but a towel. Mustafa would come to be known as “Old Spice guy” or “Shirtless Old Spice man.” The commercial is one long continuous shot with a transitioning background. Mustafa recites a lengthy monologue about how to be more manly and smell like a man. The video starts with Mustafa standing in front of a running shower in a towel. About half way through the video take a decisive turn, as the shower scene gives way to boat scene, closes in on Mustafa holding a clam that he claims, “Has two ticket for that thing you like.” The clam with the tickets falls away to show Mustafa holding a handful of diamond as a bottle of the Old Spice body not so subtly rise from the diamonds. Shirtless for the entirety of the 30 second commercial, Mustafa undergoes a couple costume changes as his the viewer watches the video. His towel is removed as he is transitioned to the boat, where it is revealed he is where white pants, and, through still shirtless, a sweater is then wrapped around his shoulders more befitting of the nautical backdrop. The video ends with a pan down as Mustafa’s next reveal, and easily the part of the video that most people remember, is that he is on a horse and the camera pans out to show him ride casually on the beach instead of a boat. More than likely this commercial has taken a note from the success of Skittles’ very random 2004/2005 “Taste the Rainbow” campaign, although they have chosen to maintain a decidedly more coherent narrative that is more straightforward with the campaign’s initiatives and goals for the commercial. Though the transitions are smooth from scene to scene, the changes are not natural and come off as bizarre, but comparatively much more literal than Skittles’ “Experience the Rainbow. Taste the Rainbow.” Both ads offered a novelty approach and were looking to reach a new age demographic by utilizing their strengths instead of rebranding, but the “Smell like a Man” campaign offered a more simple narrative than Skittles did that relied heavily on spontaneous sight-gags and puns but still used some of the core random elements to entertained and created awareness of not just a new line of body wash scent but also created an open discourse between the target audience, men, and the women that were buying their body wash. Women purchase well over half of all body washes marketed to men. This awareness was the focus of the ad campaign as women were addressed directly. A relatively unknown actor, Isaiah Mustafa, was chosen to be the voice of the campaign. He has an athletic build and comes across with a confidence in stance and dialog delivery, while still being relatable and appealing through an effective use of humor, which has been supported as a type of persuasion technique in general conversation that has shown to be highly successful in advertising. Mustafa addressed the “ladies” in a clever, rapid-fire monolog that draw attention to “their man” starting a conversation about the type of body washes being purchased at the store for that male demographic. By stating, “Look at your man, now back at me,” this created two conclusions. One is the obvious one stated in the video as your man, “Sadly, he isn’t me,” The other conclusion is one of the goal of the campaign, “… if he stopped using ladies scented body wash and switched to Old Spice, he could smell like he’s me.” The initiative in this case is actually to draw the audience’s attention away from what they are watching to engage in a conversation. Almost seems altruist with scientific results suggestion that many relationships suffer from the attachment people have to their phones, unless the end goal is of selling body wash by initiating this discussion is considered. The use of “lady-scented body wash” draws into question the masculinity in a humorous way that did not insult their audience and at the same time making the target audience aware of their new line of body washes that were more “manly smelling”. This also has an effect of both elevating both the brand and those already loyally using the brand while effectively calling into question their competitors in a suave and charismatic way that did not directly disparage rival body wash companies or give them free advertising.

A sequel commercial was made in June of 2010 following a similar formula to the first. Single continuous shot format with transitioning backgrounds and Mustafa interacting with many random objects as he recited a long monologue encouraging women to have their man smell like an Old Spice man.
These two videos generated a vast buzz for Old Spice and the initial commercial soon was a viral sensation. Old Spice then took it another step forward. They had a new mascot for their company and kept the videos coming. Only now the videos were personalized responses to people on Twitter talking about Old Spice. These videos were made for celebrities, prominent social media individuals, as well as everyday normal folk.

Here we see a tweet from Ellen DeGeneres, and a reply from Old Spice Guy:


Another Tweet from Digg founder Kevin Rose was also replied to by Old Spice


Over 180 personalized responses were created by Old Spice in response to fans comments and questions on Facebook and Twitter. Making the campaign of the Shirtless Old Spice Man one of the fastest growing interactive advertising campaigns. W+K germinated the word-of-mouth and helped to continue the buzz created by the ad by using the shared enthusiasm on Twitter to find celebrities, thought influencers/leaders on social media, and the everyday “man of the street” end consumer. After realizing the advantage social media had on this campaign, W+K took on the rather industrious task of engaging those that had professed their entertainment of the ad by posting short videos of Mustafa replying directly to Twitter user’s hashtags. Since the use of social media had been the primary focus and success of the campaign, the videos were an effective way to continue people talking about the ads; although it was a huge undertaking to approve scripts, film, and edit videos that directly responded to the users comments. W+K had the benefit of the confidence P&G so all final script approval was completed without a review and approval process from the client. W+K was completely responsible in writing scripts that were timely, so they had a sped-up timetable of production, but still had to be direct responses to the Twitter user’s post. They created guidelines for the scripts that included not explicitly take on a competitor brand, inadvertently promoting their brand, or become too political all the while effectively maintaining the initial video seating Old Spice and Mustafa as an authority on masculinity. In order to build interest in involvement they started their replies with celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres, Alyssa Milano, Oprah and Ashton Kutcher, that had referenced the campaign on twitter, even going as far to send a video to Kevin Rose, co-founder Digg, that did reference the ad. Most of the video replies were created for the average Twitter user. This effectively humanized the brand and created a sense of inclusiveness. The biggest downside was in the month following the campaign that primarily focused on gaining a massive twitter following, a total of only 23 tweets went out. The primary problem with this is that an effective social media ad campaign is never done because it should be constantly looking to establish that brand in new and interesting ways into their follows social media lives. Going overboard in an social media etiquette mistake too many companies have made but it is important to establish a balance, especially following a win like this campaign had.

One final video was made to mark the end of the campaign. In it Mustafa explains that all great things must come to an end and that he is off to go help the world in other ways. This closed out the interactive advertising campaign.

The campaign during that time was extremely effective and the Old Spice and Mustafa portrayal was extremely popular. In the first day, the video had 5.9 million views. Easily surpassing the first 24 hours of other trending viral Youtube video views like Obama’s Victory speech. If for no other reason the campaign strategy was successful as it was viewed ten times more than the Dove’s Super Bowl commercial. Fans of the Old Spice Facebook increased 60% from 500,000 to 800,000, increased 300%, Youtube subscribers doubled, and Twitter followers rose 2700%. The biggest measurement for a successful ad campaign comes down to how well the commercial increased sales and this campaign exceeded expectations. Old Spice Red Zone body wash over doubled its unit sales from the previous year by May of 2010, and by July had risen 125% according to Nielsen. Some of this increase in unit sales can also be contributed to a coupon promotion that went on at the same time as the rest of the campaign. Though still popular, with an easily quotable script, and easily identifiable amongst their target audience, the effectiveness of the continuing campaign seems to have seen a decline for the views of follow-up videos.


This type of decline is to be expected, but this type of campaign as definitely had an effect on the on how companies approach social media when considering an new ad campaigns. The decline however didn’t stop the character from returning to many Old Spice advertisements to continue the legacy. In 2011 Old spice announced the Fabio would become the new Old Spice icon. This was met by backlash to lovers of Mustafa. This gave birth to a video featuring both actors confronting each other to figure out who was the preferred Old Spice icon. 

A new series of videos as been distributed by Old Spice to promote their “Timber” and “Bear Glove” scents. These “Make a Smellmitment” videos have brought back Mustafa in his Old Spice role. This time Mustafa was not alone. He is competing with another familiar but not as iconic Old Spice icon, in the the form of Terry Crews. Terry Crews had many hyper-active advertisements with Old Spice where he would shout at the viewer. These commercials often explosions and flexing muscles.
These two icons each are advocating for a different scent. Crews for Bear Glove and Mustafa for Timber. The commercials feature elements from both of their previous ad campaigns with Crews often exploding into a small ball of fire, and Mustafa riding a horse, or smooth talking the viewer while looking seductively at the screen. This campaign is still young having started in August 2015. While funny, these videos do not seem to be having the same impact as their past incarnations.

Some critics have criticized the commercials as sexist. The “lady-scented” addition was a push toward something eventually gain the term “manvertising.” “Manvertising” is an attempt to objectification of men in advertising. A more typical example of “manvertising would be the Marlboro Man. Though this has been a small, vocal minority that has not little consequence effectiveness of the campaign but future campaigns might find a slight paradigm shift in a socially consciousness audience that has shown to be less tolerant towards casual sexism. A constantly changing demographic coupled with an ever raising resistance to advertising overall continues to keep advertisers scrambling to help companies effectively reach their audience. The impact of the initial campaign successfully reach an audience in a new and interesting way but now marketing through social media sources has become an old hat and is now considered a necessary consideration when strategically planning an ad campaign. It seems as though the internet surfing audience has become inoculated to viral video, or maybe the internet addiction has left advertising companies hustling to fill that void with new content quicker and quicker. It remains to be seen how effective the Old Spice campaigns will be going forward utilizing the same established and over-imitated campaign might prove to be less compelling. An argument can be made for simplicity as the ultimate sophistication and not trying to fix something that is working but an escalating arsenal that plans the next step has to be considered when attempting to reach an audience that constantly inundated with overstimulation. Many companies are finding people like to know their money is going towards companies that are socially conscientious. Considering the legacy as a household name brand that Old Spice has already established, P&G might find the charitable actions of Schultz to be most beneficial.

The campaign seems to have successfully reached the market demographic and all sales number appear to have improved drastically. Although, the campaign could use areas of improvement which is to be expected in a campaign that did not know if their social media focused campaign was going to be successful. Many companies have studied the “Smell like a Man” campaign and have cannibalized those results to create equally, or at the very least marginally effective ad campaigns with diminishing returns. Repetition of the same ideas is rarely as effective as the initial impact but some of the ideas once put into practice proved that social media must be considered as a primary strategy for an ad campaign to be effective.


The Project Your Project Could Smell Like: A Study Of Old Spice

BMW Graffiti Contest By Megan Essman and Marlinda Kelly

BMW Graffiti Campaign


Early History: 

In 1913, a company named Bayeriche Motoren Werk (BMW) was established in Germany, who would build military aircrafts and aircraft engines. With the passage of time, the BMW group began to produce automobiles, motorcycles, etc. The company has achieved a strong market presence in over a hundred countries, like the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, China, India, and Korea. BMW has positioned itself in the premium segments with three other world famous brands like the Mini Cooper, and Rolls-Royce. (3)


BMW uses a solid Five P’s marketing mix, accepting many challenges through strategic goals such as, Situational analysis, Competitor analysis, also incorporating Strength, Weakness, Opportunities, Threats, (SWOT), as well as a Political, Economical, Social, Technological, and Legal analysis, (PESTL). These analyses are presented to identify the factors that determine where the company stands out in the auto- making industry (9). Moreover, the market segmentation of the company has been discussed briefly as what kind of strategy BMW has adopted to be profitable and remain the best of all.

The automobile business has fierce competition to be successful. It is a service business that is based on performance, as well as customer satisfaction. Running a successful marketing campaign can be very challenging, especially when promoting one of the most successful multi-brand premium automobiles in the world, BMW. The company has many slogans such as “The Ultimate Driving Machine,” and “Sheer Driving Pleasure,” promoting a range of high-end sports cars, SUV’s, and motorcycles. BMW’s mission statement is clearly defined as “to be the most successful premium manufacturer in the industry” (8).

Overview of The Situation:

In 2008, BMW produced a product that was inspired by Generation X’s consumer perspective, a generation known for their savvy marketing, their demand for authenticity, and their inherent cynicism. They were a generation who grew up with knowledge of BMW, and had high expectations from the brand and the performance it delivered.

The 1 Series Campaign was the use of a popular application combined with a high reach site take-over on Facebook. Facebook proved an ideal platform to engage the audience, and allow users to interact with the 1 Series just as it was arriving on showroom floors. BMW teamed up with one of Facebook’s most popular applications, Graffiti. Graffiti was one of the top five Facebook applications, and boasts over 200,000 daily active users who use it to draw on a friend’s “wall,” where it showed up on their profile for everyone in their network to see.

Unknown copy

For the 1 Series, BMW created the ultimate “Build Your Own” functionality within the Graffiti application. Under the contest name of “What Drives You?” users were provided with a professionally drawn outline of a 1 Series, which acted as their blank canvas allowing users to express themselves (through color and background), while experiencing the design and beauty of the new 1 Series. Once completed, the unique BMW expressions are shared by posting to their wall for their friends to see. The contest winners received a BMW Art Car model.

A branded site was created to house the submissions, and solicit votes for the best work. Additionally, a panel of popular bloggers were fed information about the graffiti campaign and the launch of the 1 Series, creating further buzz. BMW drove Facebook users to the graffiti application with two site takeovers, owning all ad units and impressions for an entire day. As a bonus, due to the viral nature of this application, users engaged with BMW 1 Series Graffiti and submitted their entries before it was supported with advertising, with thousands of submissions in the first week. BMW was the first advertiser to be integrated into the Graffiti application, as well as the first auto advertiser to do a Facebook site take-over. (8) The BMW campaign had over 9,000 entries. According to Dave Morin, Senior Platform Manager of Facebook stated, “BMW is running a campaign on Facebook which could be one of the most brilliant social media campaigns I’ve seen in a long time.” This was considered a major success. He goes on to judge, “The Best and Worst of Social Network Marketing,” doing research of social network campaigns by 16 major firms, and pronounced the BMW Graffiti campaign the winner. The BMW Graffiti campaign was also featured in the New York Times, and won both the 2009 Silver Effie Award, and the Silver MIXX Social Marketing award (7).

Agency Used:

BMW has used the same advertising company, WCRS since 1979. They incorporate a broad range of advertising, focusing on branding campaigns (8).

How BMW Incorporated Social Media:

BMW uses social media as a tool to target a wide range of people. The social media platform that BMW partnered up with was Facebook. Today, Facebook is still the most used platform for BMW, with 18,955,517 page likes, as well as postings of BMW stories from consumers (7). The contest used the Facebook app “RSS Graffiti” to create their designs on the car. Facebook is the most popular social network site in the United States right now, which gives BMW the opportunity to have their campaign reach millions of people. (1) One great thing about Facebook is that information can spread fast through content sharing, friend-to-friend sharing, word of mouth, and node-to-node sharing. However, Facebook was not the only social site they also used; Boing Boing TV; which invites in audiences outside of social media. The campaign was receiving a lot of buzz across other websites like, Top Speed Auto Site, Auto Blog, Han D Work Blog, Google Blog and Twitter posts. (3)

Some of The Entries:

Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 3.57.00 PM screen-shot-2015-09-30-at-3-57-15-pm1

screen-shot-2015-09-30-at-3-57-26-pm screen-shot-2015-09-30-at-3-57-37-pm

What We Would Have Submitted: 





Besides only using the Graffiti app on Facebook, BMW also created banner ads that people could see while they were browsing. Here are a couple of examples:

Screen Shot 2015-09-29 at 3.17.16 PM

This was a smart idea because BMW included other applications that users were playing at the time of the campaign. In 2008, BMW invested about $25 million for online media, advertising, and even made a “micro site that is devoted to the 1-Series “(,” (4) BMW chose to stick with a simple and fun idea because social media users can control the “brand experience.” Users can let brands know how they feel in a positive or negative way. Allowing people to interact with BMW, or any other brand, will draw people in and potentially gain new customers.


Taking a look at the overall marketing mix of BMW, they first expand on the five P’s. Product is considered the most important element out of the five P’s because; it provides the useful requirements by customers. The Price ranges between $32,850 to over $100,000 here in the USA for BMW models. There are many factors that can effect the prices such as engine sizes, motor sport versions etc. The Placement, BMW use superior market dealerships and imports for non-dealer networked countries. Worldwide, they have approximately 4,000 dealerships in more than 100 countries (8). The Promotion has always focused entirely on their cars using the same advertising company WCRS since 1979 (8). The Participation with their consumers on social media, promotes good customer service, responses, blogs, updating their website, posting YouTube videos, retweeting consumer content, as well as keeping and maintaining their Facebook page.

SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity, Threat):Screen Shot 2015-09-30 at 11.59.04 PM

The BMW Graffiti Campaign did well overall, but could have always made some improvements to make it even more successful. BMW could have re-evaluated their marketing strategy by using the SWOT method (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) half way through their campaign to gain higher numbers in entries. However, some strength’s that they projected were receiving over nine thousand entries, consumer involvement, promoting new series, creating a slogan, and using social media. Having nine thousand plus entries does not seem like it is that much, especially when you are spending millions of dollars on a campaign; this is where re-evaluation should come into play. Getting consumer involvement makes people feel like they matter, and that the brand needs them. The promotion also created buzz about the new 1-Series over Facebook, and eventually across the web. Another strength that worked out for BMW was the slogan, “what drives you?”. Not only is the title appropriate because the campaign has to do with cars, but it also has another meaning to it, the personalization of the contestant car design. Back in 2008, there really was not that many ads on social media like they are today, so BMW using Facebook as a campaigning tool was a very smart move on their part. However, there are always elements that could have been improved.

There were some weak parts in BMW’s Graffiti campaign, such as, only using Facebook for a social media platform, no use of hashtags, not using search-engine marketing, and people not buying cars. Like stated before, yes, BMW was brilliant for thinking about using one of the most popular social media networks (Facebook), however, using another platform such as Twitter would have made for an even larger number of entries. Another thing that would have been great for BMW to do is, use the slogan “What Drives You?” as a hashtag on Twitter. Using hashtags makes it easy to track and also allows people to share, retweet, and create content with the hashtag. Not only is social media marketing new to the business world, but search-engine marketing is as well. SEM (Search-Engine Marketing) is a new way of marketing on the Internet to help promote websites by ranking the sites higher on search-engine result pages. One last weakness is, in 2008 people were struggling with money during the recession, so not many people were intending to buy a new car, which is a major loss for car companies like BMW.

BMW already has a certain target audience that they market to, but the campaign has brought plenty of other opportunities to their door by doing something more creative and different than they are use to. BMW definitely has its fair share of loyal customers, but the campaign offers a chance to gain new customers too. Being involved in a promotional event gives people the chance to explore, as well as, check the brand out by, visiting their website and social media pages. For people who love BMW cars, this promotion will also amp up some excitement for the new 1-Series to come out. It may also peak the interest of others just enough to have people go to their local BMW dealership and go test drive one or even another car that catches the consumers eye. The contest alone gives people the opportunity to show off their creative side with designing the car and expressing through the car “what drives them”.

In any business, there are always worry about threats like  competition, pricing, and stealing the slogan. Luxury Japanese cars such as Lexus, Infinity, and Acura are competitors to BMW; however, BMW’s main competitors are other luxury German cars Audi, Volvo, and Mercedes. The luxury car market is strong with loyal customers; however, the high-end cars may be turned down by consumers with lower prices from other car companies. Consumers who are on a strict budget will more likely go with a less expensive car that is just as sleek looking as a BMW. During the researching processes, a threat that was found is the reuse of the slogan “What Drives You?” by other car companies. If you were to search for the slogan on Twitter, Chrysler pops up with their campaign; not patenting or licensing during the BMW campaign can cause this problem for people to snag its slogan.

PESTEL (Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Ecological, and Legal):

Analysis goes over the impacting factors that organizations like BMW have to think about when producing and distributing products. Politics play a vital role with the enforcement of “new laws related to CO2 emission and change in EU legislation related to end-of-life vehicle (ELV) recycling are major political factors that affect BMW manufacturing processes.” (6) The government will not allow cars to be sold if they do not pass the emissions test. Other factors that may impact BMW are working with other foreign countries because there is always a risk that could have a negative hit on political instability. A major Economic factor that affects BMW directly is the gross domestic product fluctuation of consumer spending in Europe. “Additional economic factors that affect BMW revenues include, volatility of GBP: EURO exchange rates, and volatility of price for crude oil.”(6)

Socially, BMW keeps an eye on their consumer audience by researching demographics as well as what is happening in the car industry. Consumers spending patterns may change at any moment whether they change their values because of sticking to a budget or finding a better car for fuel efficiency and so forth. The car industry as a whole is moving towards more technological advancements with cars parking themselves, producing electric cars, push-to-start button, being able to have Wi-Fi in the car, and so on.

From a legal standpoint, BMW has to follow many regulations of rules from the government locally, regionally, and internationally. There are ecological factors that BMW has to take in consideration from a consumer standpoint. Many consumers are being more conscious about buying anything that is going to help the environment. Also, BMW is more aware of how they practice waste management and other ways they can protect the environment.

Below is the PESTEL chart that BMW uses:

Screen Shot 2015-10-01 at 8.40.34 PM

Success & Failures: Then and Now (2008-2015)

Marketing Campaigns Since The Graffiti Contest:

Since the Graffiti contest in 2008, car designs have changed a lot in the way that they look and with people being more cautious about going green. BMW did a campaign earlier this year for their new i8 Hybrid vehicle. They used the hashtag “#iamtheFuture” on Twitter to get the announcement out that BMW is going to start selling the i8 in India. BMW set their goal as a company to expand their market to the continent of Asia, targeting China and India. Another goal that BMW has set for them and succeeded in is producing hybrid/electric models. Today, marketers know more on how to incorporate different social media platforms in their campaigns besides Facebook.


How BMW Is Still Using Social Networks:

YouTube has been another successful tool to use because users can watch car reviews about a particular car model that they are interested in. Watching YouTube videos allows the viewer to get a feel for what the cars exterior and interior looks like. BMW’s Twitter does a great job at posting pictures that pop and make people think, “that’s a good looking car”. Another thing that BMW posts is past models, such as late 90’s and early 2000’s in exotic, a beautiful scene.

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Series 1 Comes to the US & Other Promotions:

In the month of March 2008, BMW’s Series-1 model was a major hit in the United States within the first month. Also, within the first two weeks of the car being out on the lots, BMW sold 1,496. (2) Other successful campaigns that BMW has was “The Hire,” promoting a series of short movies featuring Hollywood celebrities; they were produced by well known Hollywood directors, and the main theme of the films were to show off BMW cars. BMW found out that 85% of BMW purchasers used Internet before purchasing. These short films helped put BMW’s vehicles out in the public eye, allowing consumers to view online. Although, most of advertising campaigns are generally used to promote a new car, this campaign’s main motive was pure market branding. The car industry is always evolving with the looks of the cars and technological advancements; to stay on top of business, staying alert of what their competitors are doing is a must. Staying on top means, to keep coming up with creative ideas to draw consumers in and convincing them that their company (BMW) is a better choice than Audi or Volvo. Even though BMW’s Graffiti Campaign was deemed unsuccessful, BMW comes up with new creative ways to get their name out to consumers through their different styles of campaigning.

A review of the 2008 1-Series:

URL To Our WordPress Site:


  1. Bennett Shea “The 13 Most Popular Social Networks (By Age Group).” SocialTimes. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.
  2. Boeriu, Horatiu. “BMW 1 Series Sales for March 2008.” BMW BLOG RSS. 5 Apr. 2008. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
  3. “ChasNote.” ChasNote RSS. 4 Apr. 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.
  4. Elliott, Stuart. “BMW Turns to the Web for Its 1-Series.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 6 Apr. 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.
  5. “Facebook Logo.” BMW. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
  6. Dudovskiy, John. “BMW PESTEL Analysis – Research Methodology.” Research Methodology. 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
  7. Kantor, Mark. “What Do 52,795 Jelly Beans and 9,044 BMWs Have in Common?” PRWeb. 2 Apr. 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.
  8. Kiew, Roland. “BMW Marketing.” BMW Marketing. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.

9. The BMW Official Website. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.

BMW Graffiti Contest By Megan Essman and Marlinda Kelly

Obama’s Change Game Changer: The Successful Use of Social Media in the 2008 Presidential Election

Cheyenne Ward & Amanda Wolcott


What motivates people to communicate? While there are many motivation theories applied to communications, perhaps none are more discussed than Abraham Maslow’s now famous, hierarchy of needs, outlined in his 1943 paper, A Theory of Human Motivation (McLeod). Maslow argued that people are motivated by the fulfillment of needs that exist in a hierarchy. Once one need is fulfilled, people will move on to the fulfillment of the next need. Maslow believed that first, people need to fulfill the physiological needs that continue normal metabolic functioning in the body such as eating and drinking. After basic metabolic processes are able to take place, people are motivated by the need to be safe, often fulfilled by finding shelter. Once people feel safe, Maslow argued that humans have a need to belong and be loved. After reaching a state of feeling loved, people seek to fulfill their esteem needs which include self-respect and to be respected by others. Finally, once people have reached physiological, safety, love, and esteem need fulfillment they move on the the last human need, self-actualization, which is the identification of one’s potential and the pursuit and fulfillment of that potential. Maslow believed that it is need fulfillment that motivates people to do anything, whether it is the motivation to get up in the morning, listen to music, or communicate with others.

Since its debut, Maslow’s hierarchy has been applied to many disciplines such as sociology, economics, and marketing, all seeking to explain and more easily predict human behavior. Marketers apply Maslow’s motivation theory when creating and selling all manner of products and services. Marketers are often keenly aware of what needs their product is fulfilling because knowing those needs can help them market their product successfully. If one is selling a designer watch, it probably would not serve the brand to market it to people trying to fulfill basic physiological needs. If one thinks about the things a designer watch gives you such as sophistication, excellence, and yes, the time, it is easy to see that a designer watch would more appropriately be aligned with the fulfillment of esteem and self-actualization needs than with physiological. Marketers can use customer motivation information to help them create the products and services that will fulfill human need, but it can also tell them where and how to communicate with their customers about the product. The marketing for that designer watch would probably communicate more effectively to readers of a popular business magazine than in an equestrian sports magazine.

While it can be argued that communication can help facilitate the attainment of all human needs, it is critical for the social needs of belonging and esteem in that one needs to be able to communicate with others to feel accepted and respected. Communicating with customers is not something new, but the advent of social media makes it easier for marketers to have a dialogue with the customer, rather than just one-way communication though and advertisement, which can be used to create a sense of community. That sense of community not only grows brand loyalty, but fulfills the human need of belonging. As engagement with the brand continues, customers not only feel like they belong, they can feel respected within the brand community which helps them fulfill their esteem needs. Social media has made this an exciting time to be a marketer because they are in the interesting position to not only build brand loyalty through their products and services but also through the communities they help create through their social media channels by being the agents of social need satisfaction.


Barack Obama                                                                       

Barack Obama is no stranger to building communities. He worked as a community organizer for low-income residents in Chicago before earning his law degree from Harvard. After law school, Obama practiced as a civil rights lawyer in Chicago while teaching part-time at the University of Chicago law school. It was during this time Obama became politically involved by organizing voter registration drives during Bill Clinton’s 1992 presidential campaign. Later, Obama’s community organizing efforts led him to seats in the Illinois Senate in 1996 and in the U.S. Senate in 2004. In February of 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for the 2008 presidential election hoping to win the Democratic ticket over former first lady and U.S. senator Hillary Rodham Clinton. In June of 2008, Obama became the Democratic nominee and won presidency in November against Republican nominee John McCain (Nelson). Obama in many ways should have been the least likely of the three candidates to win the presidency because he was the youngest, least experienced, and the least well known, but he used his community building knowhow to appeal to the human social needs of belonging and respect which won him the ticket and the election.

2008 Presidential Campaign

The 2008 presidential campaign was marked by its innovative use of the computer mediated communication to connect with potential voters. Obama embraced social media early on in his campaign to not only connect with the youth demographic, but also to create a space for the formation of communities within the campaign that helped generate a new kind of grassroots support through user-generated media that was easily shared and viewed. These communities, again, go back to Maslow in that they fulfill the social needs of the community members by making them feel a part of something big (belonging needs) and that their opinions and contributions can actually help manifest change (esteem needs). Fulfilling social needs may have boosted the young presidential hopeful’s ethos enough to win him the election. Social-media consultant and chief technology officer for John Kerry’s 2004 presidential campaign, Sanford Dickert, claims:

The integration of technology into the process of field organizing…is the success of the Obama campaign. But the use technology was not the end-all and be-all in this cycle. Technology has been a partner, an enabler for the Obama campaign, bringing the efficiencies of the internet into the real-world problems of organizing people in a distributed, trusted fashion. (Stirland)

Dickert’s assertion here speaks to the idea that the use of technology in the Obama campaign was not just to blast his picture and promises to the masses, it was used as a community building tool, going back to Obama’s roots as a community organizer.

While Obama came from a community building background and leveraged that strength throughout the campaign, he knew he needed help utilizing the technology to its full potential. The campaign team was made up of some heavy hitters in social media, but perhaps most publicized was Chris Hughes who helped cofound Facebook and joined Obama’s campaign in 2007. Hughes is mentioned as being the brains behind the (MyBO) social site created as a place Obama’s supporters could organize and communicate (Murphy). Another team member to join in 2007 was Dan Siroker who left Google to help the campaign. Joe Rospars of Rospars and Co. also helped push the campaign forward by creating a massive online presence for Obama using social media and search engine optimization. The list of campaign team members was extensive but also included social media and technology experts such as Michael Slaby, Teddy Goff, Betsy Hoover and Amelia Showalter (Murphy). Obama’s massive team of social media gurus helped to create the online community support that ensured his election win.


While it could be said the goal of any campaign is to win, each person’s road to the White House will have different considerations. The main goals of Obama’s social media campaign were to spread his message, mobilize supporters by giving them a space to organize, and to raise money by engaging with donors. Victoria Chang in her European Business Review article Obama and the power of social media and technology states, “A major success factor for Obama’s victory was how Obama’s campaign used social media and technology as an integral part of its strategy, to raise money, and, more importantly, to develop a groundswell of empowered volunteers who felt they could make a difference” (Chang). While these can be accomplished a number of ways, the bottom-up approach Obama chose seemed to align well with his ethos as a community organizer and civil rights lawyer. The emerging social media technologies only helped his community building efforts because one of the many affordances of the technology is that you can rally support from anywhere, at any time. Chang goes on to say of the campaign, “Traditional campaigns typically focused on getting votes and money. The Obama team’s grassroots efforts revolved around asked for a third element: time, which meant involvement and engagement” (Chang). This type of time commitment, autonomy, and engagement all go into building communities which brings us back to the fulfillment of social needs. Attaching the candidate to need fulfillment bring more intense loyalty than just communicating an idea or message.

The Campaign Rollout

Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign started with his announcement on February 10, 2007. He won the election for president on November 4, 2008. During that time, he campaigned across the US and over social media. He amassed a huge following over many social media sites which helped make the most out of his campaign time (some sources claim upwards of 5 million supporters over all of the various social media networks, though, true followers is difficult to verify) (Chang). Not only was his campaign creating content to publish, but so were members of his growing online community. February 2007 to November 2008 was a time of social media change. From YouTube to Reddit, Obama reached out to connect to potential voters.

The public reacted positively towards the campaign because it pushed a movement and not just a campaign (Walsh). Political strategist Joe Trippi said of the 2008 Obama campaign, “The campaign’s official stuff they created for YouTube was watched for 14.5 million hours,” (Miller). Whether those viewing the content voted for or against him, the media still had the reaction the team wanted. The videos were watched and in a campaign where you want eyeballs on the content, 14.5 million hours of viewing is more than acceptable.

Obama’s team made an effort to reach out on as many platforms as they could. One of his goals was to reach the youth and many of those possible voters use social media sites beyond Facebook and YouTube. “Pulling out all the Web 2.0 stops, the Obama campaign used not only Facebook and YouTube but also Myspace, Twitter, Flickr, Digg, BlackPlanet, LinkedIn, AsianAve, MiGente, Glee, and others.” (Dutta and Fraser). His team had to produce a range of media that could be posted to the different sites in order to get the concentration of mediums they were looking for to create a real sense of community online.

Content Examples:

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Obama announces that he is making plans for 2008. One of his key running points was that he wanted to push a movement and not just a campaign (Walsh). The video highlights him talking about grass roots and community, which will become focal points in his movement.

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Frontline posted their video on YouTube. Even those who missed the televised episode could watch it. While some claim Frontline has a liberal lean, the video could feasibly attract views from other political viewers.

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Race was a bit of a focal point for the 2008 Obama campaign because if elected, he would be the first African American president. Also, much of his work as a lawyer was focused on race issues. This video also shows that the youth are taking an interest in Obama’s opinions. This interest ties back into Obama’s push to grow community and how he hopes to bring citizens together.

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Facebook is a platform that can be used to share media such as videos and pictures. While scrolling through Obama’s 2008 posts, it can be noted that he included media in almost all of them. This particular post shows his campaign’s humor and personality. They take a motivational ad and add a humorous twist. This sort of marketing works well for the youth demographic as they are large consumers of entertainment and humor. Television shows like Viva La Bam were made based off this humor premise. This is an ad that prompts the audience to stay engaged in his campaign and to share it for more than its political value.

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This Facebook page is an example of Obama’s community building effort manifesting user-generated content. Women for Obama (WFO) is a page dedicated to women who rally behind him for his presidential election. Often times, members would post personal stories of why they chose to support him. Posts like this serve as content for their grassroots page (WFO) and as marketing for the Obama campaign. These sort of pages are viewed as authentic and breed a sense of belonging which satisfies those social needs.


Near the end of the campaign, Obama chose this image to a caption on Facebook depicting him giving a speech about the economy. The smiles and diversity of the crowd make this a warm image filled with compassion and humanity, which again, brings with it feelings of love that help strengthen the ties within the Obama community.


One of Obama’s most famous tweets was after he won the 2008 election. He uses inclusive language which makes the followers feel like part of his community. This style of message fits perfectly with his grassroots and community campaign themes. He demonstrates that this victory is not just his own, it is a victory for all of those that supported him throughout the campaign.


Obama took on the 2008 political battle with a new style of combat. He was pitching inspiration and power to the youth through a communication medium that seemed all their own. The message was sent out through a huge range of social networks. At the time no other politician was meeting him on this forefront to the same degree:

On his personal Facebook profile—which featured his “Our Moment Is Now” motto—Obama named his favorite musicians as Miles Davis, Stevie Wonder, and Bob Dylan and listed his pastimes as basketball, writing, and “loafing w/kids” (note the hip shorthand aimed at appealing to young voters). The 72-year-old John McCain, by contrast, never managed to connect on Facebook. He gave one of his pastimes as “fishing” and listed Letters F rom Iwo Jima among his favorite movies. (Dutta and Fraser)

Obama’s opponent McCain was not as well versed in this style of battle. This stark divide in the utilization of technology drew even more attention from news organizations because they wanted to report the impacts of technology on the election. With the increased attention from journalists came critics who thought Obama was running just based off a popularity contest and not running on his platform of change and community. “Many voters appear to like what they hear, even though he is often heavy on inspiration and a bit light on the details” (Walsh). Many believed he was getting away with not explaining the details of his plan for the country because everyone was swept up in the technological innovations of the campaign.

Today, the current U.S. presidential race is filled with technology and the elaborately choreographed use of social media. Jeb Bush’s perfectly timed tweets that went out during one of the Republican debates is a perfect example of how social media has permeated the political space. Bush’s account has 321 thousand followers and over 2000 tweets. Trump has a staggering 4.31 million followers and 28 thousand tweets. Clinton has 4.3 million followers as well and over 1,800 tweets. These politicians know that having a large online presence is going to help them gain the upper hand because of the success of the Obama campaigns. Trump has been using twitter to discuss politics since well before he announced recent interest in running for president. He most famously tweeted on the sixth of November 2012, “He lost the popular vote by a lot and won the election. We should have a revolution in this country” (Kerpel). Social media has become the go to form of communication for candidates to reach out to the public. Trump can send out a tweet for free and reach 4 million people (less a few fake accounts) or he can pay for an ad to air while hoping viewers see it. In today’s technologically saturated landscape, it is easy to see why the success of Obama’s 2008 campaign started a trend that only continues to grow. It will be interesting to see if this new set of presidential hopefuls will be able to harness the affordances of social media to the same degree of success that Obama had, as theirs in many ways is a response to demand rather than the goal of building a community.

Measurement of Success

For the macro goal of getting elected, Obama’s campaign strategy which included his social media was a success. He won the Democratic ticket and he beat Republican nominee John McCain to become the 44th president of the United States. Going back to the social media goals of spreading his message, mobilizing supporters by giving them a space to organize, and to raising money by engaging with donors, all seem to be fulfilled by sticking to what he is good at and that is building communities.

Obama was able to spread his message of hope and community through all of the various mediums, but perhaps the most influential were the YouTube videos as they could be shared as links and embedded into many of the social media sites. Video allowed Obama to speak to the public in his voice which was amplified by the amount of likes and shares.

Mobilizing supporters was supported by the various grassroots social media pages like the Women for Obama Facebook page, but was really driven by his various websites like MyBO. Registered users were able to create a profile, connect with other Obama supporters, and find rallies and events near by. The website even had a downloadable tool kit for creating your own events and for showing your support. The more developed your MyBo profile was and the more active you were on the site meant you were given access to more downloadable tools (Chang). This sort of built trust helped to fulfill the esteem needs of his supporters.

For fundraising, all of the social media channels were utilized and critical to the success. Joe Rospars, key technologist in creating the various tools and systems said of the fundraising effort, “When we did our first set of fundraising, our goal was the number of people we wanted giving, not the dollar amount” (Chang). Focusing on the people in this way, again, shows the Obama campaign’s focus on building a community. The campaign showcased the 75,000th donor on the blog, on the website, and even sent an email to the Obama community. These kind of considerations inspired more people to get involved and to donate. The campaign itself ended up with over 3 million donors, more than any other campaign in history, that raised 750 million dollars, mostly through the internet and the average donor gave more than once (Chang) (Bradley).

Perhaps the biggest takeaway from all of the success of the Obama 2008 campaign is the importance of picking a social media strategy that resonates with you and your audience. Obama was already good a building communities, so he hired the right people to help him do that in the online space. Since he was doing something he was already good at, his authenticity showed through which won the hearts of the pubic that was seeking to fulfill their social needs. It is safe to say that the Obama campaign was a game changer in the way campaigns are run and funded and the legacy lives on when we tweet at our state senator for change.

Works Cited

Bradley, Tahman. “Final Fundraising Figure: Obama’s $750M.” 5 December 2008. ABC News. 27 September 2015<;.

Chang, Victoria. “Obama and the power of social media and technology.” The European Business Review (2010): 16-21.

Dutta, Soumitra, and Matthew Fraser. “Barack Obama and the Facebook Election.” U.s. News and World Report, 19 Nov. 2008. Web. 26 Sept. 2015.

Krepel, Terry. “Trump Tweets A Call For “Revolution” After Obama Victory.”

Media Matter for America, 7 Nov. 2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

McLeod, Saul. “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” 2007. Simply Psychology . 27 September 2015<;.

Miller, Claire. “How Obama’s Internet Campaign Changed Politics.” Bits How Obamas Internet

Campaign Changed Politics Comments., 07 Nov. 2008. Web. 01
Oct. 2015.

Murphy, Tim. “Meet Obama’s Digital Gurus.” Mother Jones, Sept.-Oct. 2012.Web. 24 Sept. 2015.

Nelson, Michael. “Barack Obama: Life Before the Presidency.” 2009. Miller Center University of Virginia. 26 September 2015 <;.

Stirland, Sarah Lai. “Obama’s Secret Weapons: Internet, Databases and Psychology.” 29 October 2008. Wired. 29 September 2015 <;.

Walsh, Kenneth. “Obama Explains His Campaign Strategy.”  U.S. News World  Report, 15 Feb. 2008. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Obama’s Change Game Changer: The Successful Use of Social Media in the 2008 Presidential Election