Amanda Hobbs

Case Study #2


Planned Parenthood Is an important organization, especially to poor women and teen girls; the organization provides vital health care to the communities it serves, from general preventative care to screening for sexually transmitted infection to, yes, even providing abortions.

PP has a long history of being opposed by anti-choice factions, from politicians to protesters, and during that history, PP has strongly opposed restrictions placed on family planning, women’s reproductive health, and attempts to limit poor women’s access to adequate, affordable health care. I will attempt to abbreviate that history as much as possible by only including the aspects of it that relate to the #StandWIthPP campaign.

PP’s roots date back to 1916 when Margaret Sanger, along with her sister and a friend, opened America’s first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. At the time this clinic opened, women had few rights; they could not vote, divorce abusive husbands, have bank accounts, or, thanks to Comstock laws, even control how many children they had. Sanger was well aware of the problems caused by unwanted pregnancies and illegal abortions, thanks to her years working as a nurse among immigrant families in New York’s Lower East Side. To that end, Sanger founded The Birth Control Review, the first scientific journal devoted to contraceptives, appealed her conviction, which resulted in more a more liberal interpretation of New York’s contraceptive laws, and, in 1923, opened the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau in Manhattan with the intent to distribute contraceptives and collect statistics in order to prove not only their safety, but their long term effectiveness. Also in 1923, Sanger incorporated the American Birth Control League, an organization meant to embrace such global issues as world population growth, disarmament, and famine. Eventually, the two organizations would merge and become Planned Parenthood® Federation of America, Inc.

During the 1960s, PP was instrumental in the push for increased access to birth control, the creation and funding of family planning, both domestically and internationally, and was crucial to the development of the birth control pill and intrauterine device. The organization also played a large role in the striking down of state laws banning the use of birth control by married couples, the liberalization of family planning legislation in at least 10 states, and the liberalization of abortion laws in at least 14 states. PP started an international program in 1971, largely funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, and, within 15 years, became the largest U.S.-based nongovernmental provider of family planning in developing countries.

During the late 1970s PP and other groups fought against the Hyde Amendment as well as the passing of more restrictions placed on federal funding for abortions, meaning fewer and fewer women are able to get federal assistance for abortions.

In 1984, after the announcement of the ”Mexico City policy,” the International Planned Parenthood Federation has $40 million of federal funding stripped away after refusing to not provide abortion counseling and abortion referrals as part of its international family planning programs. While PP is able to get court orders to continue funding, a joint lawsuit with the United Nations Population Fund fails.

Throughout the Reagan and Bush administrations, PP personnel and patients were frequent targets of violence and harassment; however, FBI Director William Webster refused to consider these attacks acts of terrorism.

The #StandWithPP campaign began after the release of a series of secretly recorded, heavily edited, videos that featured PP executives discussing fetal tissue. When asked about the controversy, a representative from PP told CNN that PP follows federal guidelines, which prevents the sale of human tissues but does allow reimbursement for reasonable costs. Shortly after th

The first hashtag related to PP to come out after the release of the videos was “#ShoutYourAbortion.” This hashtag was started by Lindy West and Amelia Bonow when West tweeted an image of Bonow’s Facebook status.

<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”en”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>The campaign to defund PP &quot;relies on the assumption that abortion is to be whispered about.&quot; <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/ShoutYourAbortion?src=hash”>#ShoutYourAbortion</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/r1ilpCVr30″>pic.twitter.com/r1ilpCVr30</a></p>&mdash; Lindy West (@thelindywest) <a href=”https://twitter.com/thelindywest/status/645368432666374144″>September 19, 2015</a></blockquote>


Predictably, this hashtag was hijacked by anti-choice Twitter users and Steve Brookstein, a former winner of the British show X Factor. This is one of the less gross examples of the hijacking.

<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”en”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>The <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/ShoutYourAbortion?src=hash”>#ShoutYourAbortion</a&gt; hashtag is literally a movement of women who are proud of killing their babies. A new low point for humanity. So sad!</p>&mdash; Mathews Michelle (@TheMathews04) <a href=”https://twitter.com/TheMathews04/status/646221023638122496″>September 22, 2015</a></blockquote>


.#StandwithPP started after as a replacement for #ShoutYourAbortion when the government was set to vote on cutting funding to Planned Parenthood, and was used as a way to show support for PP and PP president Cecile Richards during the hearing. The hashtag received support from several celebrities, including Ariana Grande, Lena Dunham, and Kerry Washington. Examples of those tweets are located below, but, as a warning, they all have some pretty disgusting replies, so just look at the embedded tweets.

<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”en”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”>There has never been a more urgent time to <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/StandwithPP?src=hash”>#StandwithPP</a&gt; <a href=”http://t.co/VSPikSKRbO”>pic.twitter.com/VSPikSKRbO</a></p>&mdash; Lena Dunham (@lenadunham) <a href=”https://twitter.com/lenadunham/status/626064590498086913″>July 28, 2015</a></blockquote>


<blockquote class=”twitter-tweet” lang=”en”><p lang=”en” dir=”ltr”><a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/ProudFeministTweet?src=hash”>#ProudFeministTweet</a&gt; I stand with <a href=”https://twitter.com/PPFA”>@PPFA</a&gt; in the fight against the attacks on women and our repro health freedom. <a href=”https://twitter.com/hashtag/StandwithPP?src=hash”>#StandwithPP</a></p>&mdash; kerry washington (@kerrywashington) <a href=”https://twitter.com/kerrywashington/status/628308822549893120″>August 3, 2015</a></blockquote>


As noted in an article by Beth Kanter, PP was able to reach out almost immediately to it’s extensive network of supporters and allied organizations to start a campaign of tweets, Facebook posts, and letters to Congress; in fact, Kanter cites over 27,000 tweets using the #StandWithPP hashtag within the first couple weeks of the campaign. Kanter also noted that, largely due to past experience with opposition attempting to defund or shutdown PP, the organization was ready to go into action almost as soon as the edited video was released. She listed the following ways PP handled the situation properly:

  1. Prepared – It already had a crisis communication plan in place that it could tailor and put into action quickly; it recognized more attacks were coming and prepared its supporters to brace themselves.
  2. Decisive – It responded quickly (with the facts in hand) and decisively through written and digital channels (email, video, Twitter).
  3. Empathetic – PPFA’s response struck the right tone. It was strong and did not concede wrongdoing but acknowledged that the optics weren’t optimal.
  4. Engaging – Planned Parenthood’s supporters are passionate and ready to act – through Twitter, blog posts, emails to Congress, etc. The group used the power of personal stories to connect with people on the issue.
  5. Connected – PPFA prioritizes building and maintaining strong ties with allies and decision makers willing to stand in support of the organization

Unlike previous Planned Parenthood related hashtags, there wasn’t a lot of evidence of this hashtag being hijacked.








Cadbury Gorilla

Cadbury Is a British chocolate company founded almost 200 years ago by John Cadbury. Cadbury originally sold items such as cocoa and drinking chocolate that, using a mortar and pestle, he prepared himself in the grocer’s shop he opened in 1824 in Birmingham, England (“The History of Chocolate”).

Cadbury began manufacturing chocolate in 1831 when he purchased a four story warehouse not far from his shop. By 1847, Cadbury had expanded his products lines to at least 16 types of drinking chocolate and 11 types of cocoa, and had moved into a larger factory closer to the center of Birmingham(“The History of Chocolate”) .

In 1861, with his health declining, John Cadbury relinquished control of the company, and his sons Richard and George took over (“The History of Chocolate”). In 1866, using a new processing technique, Cadbury introduced the United Kingdom’s first unadulterated cocoa, Cocoa Essence (“The History of Chocolate”).

Cadbury produced their first Easter egg in 1875. It was a plain dark chocolate and were filled with sugar-coated chocolate drops. Future versions of Cadbury’s Easter eggs would feature chocolate piping and marzipan flowers (“The History of Chocolate”).

Between 1879 and 1895, the Cadbury brothers began building Bournville, a village of over 150 houses intended for employees near their newest factory. Finishing out their 19th century accomplishments, the company introduced its first chocolate bar in 1897. The bars were made using leftover cocoa butter from Cadbury’s Cocoa Essence product (“The History of Chocolate”).

In 1906 and 1908, Cadbury launched two new products named after their Bournville factory, Bournville Cocoa and Bournville Chocolate, respectively. Bournville Cocoa was the company’s first alkalized cocoa product. Using a carbonate of potash, the cocoa was made to taste less bitter; this was a big change for a company that traditionally emphasized how pure its products were. Bournville Chocolate was introduced as a plain chocolate bar; however, there would eventually be many different varieties of the bar produced (“The History of Chocolate”).

The 1910s brought several changes for the company. In 1915 Cadbury introduced Milk Tray, an assortment of chocolates that, unlike the expensive chocolates the company had offered since the 1860s, was inexpensive enough that it could be eaten everyday, instead of just for special occasions. Cadbury merged with Bristol-based company J.S. Fry & Sons in 1919, allowing the company to expand its operations and produce chocolate on a larger scale (“The History of Chocolate”).

Based on the signature of William Cadbury, the company’s script logo was first used in 1921; prior to that the company had been using it’s original logo, an image of a cocoa tree intertwined with the company’s name. The original logo was designed by French artist Georges Auriol, and was used from 1911 until after the Second World War (“The History of Chocolate”).

During the war, Cadbury scaled back much of its production due to rationing. Due to restrictions on placed on what raw materials manufacturers could use, it was at this time Cadbury introduced Ration Chocolate, bars made with dried skimmed milk powder since manufacturers were unable to use fresh milk due to war rationing (“The History of Chocolate”).

Cadbury continued to introduce new products throughout the 40s, 50s, and 60s.     In 1969, Cadbury merged with Schweppes after Adrian Cadbury, the new Cadbury chairman, was approached by Lord Watkinson from Schweppes (“The History of Chocolate”).

The 70s saw a large increase in sales for the company, especially their Dairy Milk, Flake, Fruit and Nut, and Whole Nut products. Most of this increase was attributed to successful television advertising. Cadbury introduced three more products during the 70s, including the Cadbury Creme Egg in 1971 (“The History of Chocolate”).

The 80s and 90s brought more products from Cadbury and, as with products introduced in prior decades, not all of them stayed around very long. Nineteen-ninety also saw the opening of Cadbury World an attraction to replace the frequently disruptive factory tours that had been taking place in Cadbury’s working factory (“The History of Chocolate”).

In 2003, Cadbury bought Adams, the number two gum manufacturer in the world, becoming the leading confectionery company in the world. Cadbury launched their Gorilla commercial, which will be discussed later in this paper. The following year brought the demerging of Cadbury and Schweppes allowing each company to focus on its own area of expertise(“The History of Chocolate”).

Also in 2008, Cadbury launched their Cadbury Cocoa Partnership, a program that, over the course of a decade, put £45 million into cocoa farms in Indonesia, Ghana, India, and the Caribbean (“The History of Chocolate”). “The History of Chocolate” page on Cadbury’s website provides a list of ways the partnership will help cocoa farms and farming villages such as “help farmers increase their yields and produce top quality beans; Help start new rural businesses; Improve life in cocoa communities by supporting education, the environment and building wells for clean and safe water; Develop a pioneering way for cocoa farmers to work together with governments, NGOs, local organisations and international agencies.” Between cocoa farmers and their communities, the partnership is expected to help around a million people (“The History of Chocolate”).

More recently, Cadbury Dairy Milk went Fairtrade in 2009, which resulted in the tripling of sales for cocoa farmers in Ghana under Fairtrade terms. On 2 February 2010, Cadbury became a part of Mondelēz International. Lastly, the Chocolate Centre of Excellence, a research and development laboratory, opened in Bournville in 2012 (“The History of Chocolate”).

Fallon London was started in Minneapolis in 1981 and was originally simply called Fallon. Without a founding client, the five members of the agency pooled their money to place a one page newspaper ad announcing that they were an agency ‘for clients who would rather outsmart the competition than outspend them’ (“We Are Fallon”). Fallon’s London offices, conveniently named Fallon London, opened in 1998 and works with brands such as Cadbury, Maynards, and the Alzheimer’s Society (“We Are Fallon”).

One of the main goals of the Cadbury Gorilla campaign was to boost sales after, in 2006, some of their chocolate products were found to contain salmonella. The campaign was part of Cadbury Schweppes’ goal to increase sales by six percent (The Times), and, largely due to an increase in funding for marketing campaigns such as this one, Cadbury exceeded that goal, reaching a seven percent sales increase worldwide in 2007 (Jones). Another purpose for this campaign was to help boost sales of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate bars. According to The Times, Cadbury was hoping the campaign would make young consumers more interested in their Dairy Milk bars, a product that young consumers were not often attracted to (The Times).

The 90 second commercial originally aired on August 31, 2007, and a copy of the commercial uploaded to YouTube received almost 500,000 views within the first week after its release (Sandison, “Cadbury’s Drumming Gorilla Spawns Facebook Group”). The video featured actor Garon Michael in a fairly realistic gorilla suit listening to Phil Collins’ “In the Air Tonight” and playing along on the drums. Cadbury released a sequel to this campaign in late 2008 which featured the gorilla playing drums along to Bonnie Tyler’s Total Eclipse of the Heart.

The commercial spawn many parodies and remixes, including a Wonderbra commercial that was pulled due to copyright infringement on Collins’ song (Sandison, “Wonderbra Gorilla Spoof Pulled for Copyright Infringement”).

For the most part, the campaign was a success; as stated previously, although Cadbury was only hoping for a six percent sales increase, this campaign helped the company reach a seven percent increase instead. The commercial also won several awards, including taking top place in the film category of Cannes International Advertising Festival, a black pencil at the D&AD awards, and winning ad of the year at the British Television Advertizing awards (Sweney).


Works Cited

Jones, David. “Cadbury Gets Sweeter Taste from Year of the Gorilla.” Reuters. Reuters,

19 Feb. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.

Sandison, Nikki. “Cadbury’s Drumming Gorilla Spawns Facebook Group.” Brand

Republic. Haymarket Media Group Ltd., 11 Sept. 2007. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.

Sandison, Nikki. “Wonderbra Gorilla Spoof Pulled for Copyright Infringement.” Brand

Republic. Haymarket Media Group Ltd., 6 Dec. 2007. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

Sweney, Mark. “Cannes: Gorilla Bags the Top Lion.” The Guardian. Guardian News and

Media Limited, 23 June 2008. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

“The History of Chocolate.” Https://cadbury.co.uk/. MondelezUK, 2012. Web. 25 Sept.

The Times. “Cadbury Schweppes – a Successfulmarketing Campaign.” Business Case

Studies. Business Case Studies, 9 Jan. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2015.

“We Are Fallon.” We Are Fallon. Fallon, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2015.

Cadbury Gorilla